RG24 8AL, SURREY FIRE & SAFETY LTD – BRACKNELL BRANCH Heathrow Dry Powder fire extinguishers work by chemical reaction with the fire causing the particles to expand , chemically inhibiting combustion and expelling the oxygen thereby smothering the flames. Dry Powder (Class D Fires) MET-L-X POWDER (SODIUM CHLORIDE) FIRE EXTINGUISHERS Use for Class D Fires. Learn what the different extinguisher colours mean. Throttle the stream with the nozzle valve to produce a soft, heavy flow. Dry powder (ABC) fire extinguishers are an exceptional multi-purpose fire extinguisher, usually recommended for use on vehicles and also for use in domestic homes. Camberley 200 Brook Drive Once control is established, take a position that is in close range. Surrey DCP fire extinguishers are easily distinguishable by the white band that is around the fire extinguisher cylinder near the top and if installed in a building they should also be identified by what is known as a description sign, which describes what fires the fire extinguisher can and cannot be used for. High Street Capacity ISI Mark IS: 15683 operating temperature (-0) ºC to (+55) ºC and Fire Rating 1A & 8B type of fire filled with MAP Powder Complete in all respect & 'A','B' & 'C' class fires - inflammable liquids, gaseous fires like L.P.G. Dry Chemical Powder Fire Extinguishers are the most widely used type of fire extinguisher. It also dissipates the heat from the burning metal. Bracknell AS is extremely important as it lowers the melting point of MAP thus making MAP a very effective fire fighting medium. Note: Lifting the extinguisher by the handle will not activate the extinguisher. Remember, if you feel that you cannot safely extinguish the fire using the portable extinguisher available and if you have not already done so, pull the fire alarm, evacuate the area, and then call the fire department. Identifying dry chemical powder fire extinguishers. Class A fire extinguishers are used with ordinary combustibles such as wood, paper and cloth. Dry powder fire extinguishers are excellent all-round fire extinguishers, often recommended for use on vehicles and in the home. The idea behind a dry chemical fire extinguisher is to blanket the fuel with an inert solid (similar to dirt or sand). GU14 7JF, SURREY FIRE & SAFETY LTD – GUILDFORD BRANCH The heat of the fire causes the dry powder to cake and form an exterior crust. They are ineffective on all other classes of fires. RG12 1WA, SURREY FIRE & SAFETY LTD – CROYDON BRANCH How long will it take to use up the 30 pounds of dry powder in the extinguisher? . Older, outdated models were an entire white cylinder. See the link for a full article explaining the correct use of fire extinguishers in confined spaces. It is not intended for use on an out-of-control fire, such as one which has reached the ceiling, endangers the user (i.e., no escape route, smoke, explosion hazard, etc. SL2 5AJ, SURREY FIRE & SAFETY LTD – WOKING BRANCH As we stated that fire extinguisher contains the chemicals depending on its application areas, hence for an example, handheld extinguishers (use in garages and kitchens) contain chemicals such as pressurized carbon dioxide, and nitrogen, which are useful in extinguishing the fire. Woking A dry powder (or powder) fire extinguisher is multi-purpose and can be used on Class A, B and C fires. attachment=1083:fire-extinguisher.dwg Admin Squeeze slowly and evenly. 26, York Street You need to look out for a white band running across the tank to determine whether it’s a dry chemical type extinguisher. Class D fires only involving combustible metals - magnesium, sodium (spills and in … Summary: Standard dry powder fire extinguishers are very versatile and can put out virtually every kind of fire. It is also known as a DCP, BE, or ABE fire extinguisher. Dry Powder. The dry chemical fire extinguisher is also known as ABE, BE or DCP fire extinguishers. Real-world scale. This crust excludes air and results in extinguishment. However, they aren’t recommended for use in enclosed spaces. A typical carbon-dioxide extinguisher. Water Mist Pinewood Chineham Business Park Dorset House London Cover the metal completely with a heavy layer of powder. Application of the dry powder on Class A, B or C fires can be very dangerous. this extinguisher contains dry powder instructions for use Sign. A capsule of carbon dioxide gas is located beneath a plunger mechanism in the central cap (Figure ). As they do not cool the fire, there is a small risk of re-ignition. What type of fires can be extinguished with a MET-L-X powder extinguisher? However, they aren’t recommended for use in enclosed spaces. The Lansdowne Building Despite being non-toxic, you shouldn’t try to eat the powder that comes from a fire extinguisher. Reading Dry powder fire extinguishers are ideal for open or outdoor environments with the risk of several different types of fire, especially those involving chemicals, fuel, or vehicles. In fact it may be best to do this while repositioning yourself in relation to the fire when necessary. Downshire Way US Patent 3,901,322: Fire Extinguisher Discharge Horn by Jack Winston, Brooks Equipment Co., Inc., August 26, 1975. Completely cover the burning metal with a thin layer of powder. Venture House, Arlington Square If you think you need dry powder fire extinguishers, or you’re not exactly sure what you need, please get in touch with our friendly team by calling 0800 157 1113, or emailing info@surreyfire.co.uk. On depressing the plunger the carbon dioxide gas forces the powder up a discharge tube and out of the discharge nozzle. Be careful not to break the crust formed by the powder. Pros: work on most types of fire; they suppress fires very quickly; specialist dry powder extinguishers are the only extinguishers that work on flammable metals. Berkshire Green Park Another fire extinguisher, which isn’t usually found in offices and homes, and is only available for “D” fires. C-5 FIRE EXTINGUISHER, DRY POWDER TYPE GAS CARTRIDGE (see IS 2171, IS 10658, IS 11833 and IS 15683) All dry powder extinguishers should be inspected and maintained in accordance with the following. Never cradle it horizontally or at an angle in your arms. Wokingham A novel powder extinguisher for fighting flammable liquid fires at relatively close range. Remember – don’t use dry powder extinguishers in enclosed areas. Dry powder extinguishers The outer container contains sodium bicarbonate powder. ABE Type handles classes A, B, and E. This rating of fire extinguisher ensures a variety of fires can … See the link for a full article explaining the correct use of fire extinguishers in confined spaces. Watchmoor Road 5 Kew Rd Summary:  Standard dry powder fire extinguishers are very versatile and can put out virtually every kind of fire. Garrison Dry Chemical General Purpose Fire Extinguisher, 2 lbs #046-0057-8 $29. and acetylene, and electrical fires.. Product code: FZ384-P12-V Kingston Road However, water fire extinguishers are only suitable for class A fires, which are fires involving solids. Using a Nitrogen propellant, dry chemical extinguisher sprays a very fine powder of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), potassium bicarbonate (nearly identical to baking soda), or mono-ammonium phosphate, these solids coat the fuel and smother the fire. Dry powder fire extinguishers smother fires by forming a barrier between the fuel and the source of oxygen. ), or otherwise requires the expertise of a fire brigade. Apply the dry powder. This type of extinguisher usually contains fine sand powder or metal and is used to soften a fire that may not react to other extinguishers. Where To Use A Dry Powder Fire Extinguisher. Crockford Lane Holding the extinguisher with the nozzle pointing away from you, pull out the pin located below the trigger. Fire extinguisher inspection and maintenance is important to safeguard you and your premises. The Hub Berkshire Free CAD Blocks of a fire extinguisher in DWG format for your AutoCAD project. For fire caused by flammable gases and liquids, the most suitable type of firefighting equipment is a dry powder fire extinguisher. Surrey CR9 2ER, SURREY FIRE & SAFETY LTD – FARNBOROUGH BRANCH Upper Level, Room 034 Slough Leatherhead All of our extinguishers come with a 5 year guarantee, and we’ll fit and commission them for you for free. Examples include: Whilst powder fire extinguishers do extinguisher electrical fires involving equipment under 1000v, we recommend also having CO2 extinguishers on hand where there is this kind of fire risk, such as in a team kitchen, or where electric heaters are used. 617.287.3855(Fax) And water fire extinguishers are probably the most common. Albion House Building 220 London UB7 0EB, SURREY FIRE & SAFETY LTD – LEATHERHEAD BRANCH The idea behind a dry chemical fire extinguisher is to blanket the fuel with an inert solid (similar to dirt or sand). The dry powder extinguisher should be opened in a dry room and for a minimum possible time to avoid effect to atmospheric moisture on powder. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the sodium chloride dry powder? More on the different options of fire extinguisher. Communications House These are made of flammable metals. The 6 foot reach of the extension applicator hose and the squeeze grip valve allows placement of the dry powder exactly where it will be most effective. Farnborough Types of Fire Extinguishers. Always hold the extinguisher vertically. That’s why they’re also known as ABC extinguishers. General purpose (ABC) fire fighting powder in the fire extinguisher contains mono ammonium phosphate (MAP) and ammonium sulphate (AS), plus silicates and filler material. Longford They’ll be able to arrange a free survey visit for you from one of our BAFE registered engineers. The approximate time to discharge the 30 pounds of dry powder is 28 seconds. Fire Extinguisher Powder Consumption. Regent Park The extinguishers are very heavy - an extinguisher containing 30 pounds of powder weighs 53 pounds. Pull the pin. TW9 2PR, SURREY FIRE & SAFETY LTD – SLOUGH BRANCH W1U 6PZ, SURREY FIRE & SAFETY LTD – BASINGSTOKE BRANCH How to use a dry powder fire extinguisher: It mostly works by cooling the fire to extinguish it.This type of fire extinguisher is simple to use. For metallic flammable solids (e.g., phosphorus, sodium, lithium, magnesium) do not use water, foam or carbon dioxide as a fire suppressant. There are 2 types of dry powder fire extinguishers – standard and specialist. 617.287.5445 (Telephone) Garrison Dry Chemical General Purpose Fire Extinguisher, 2 lbs #046-0057-8 In-stock. Yes, stop squeezing the trigger and the dry powder will be turned off. 1 Farnham Road umbehs@umb.edu, © 2021 University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 William T. Morrissey Blvd., Boston, MA 02125 | Tel: 617.287.5000, Office of Environmental Health and Safety, Standards of Identifying the Fire Hazards of Materials (NFPA 704), Office of Emergency Management and Business Continuity. Wharfedale Road 99. In the US, fires have five main classifications, and fire extinguisher ratings are based on the kind of fire they are intended to put out. Hampshire What is the proper way to use a Class D, sodium chloride extinguisher? 3, Watchmoor Trade Centre To determine if a fire extinguisher is a dry chemical type, one simply needs to look for the white band that runs around the tank. Dousing metallic fires with water may generate hydrogen gas, an extremely dangerous explosion hazard, particularly if fire is in a confined environment. 2 Lansdowne Rd Surrey GU15 3AJ, SURREY FIRE & SAFETY LTD – LONDON OFFICE Richmond If the extinguisher is too heavy to hold properly, place on the floor next to you and operate. They discharge a fine powder that absorbs fuel molecules, depriving the fire of a fuel source. An extinguisher that is not maintained can be more dangerous than no extinguisher at all. This is the perfect fire extinguisher to have on hand to take care of a variety of fires safely and efficiently. Most fire extinguishers should be operated using the PASS technique: P ull out the safety pin, A im the extinguisher at the base of the fire, S queeze the handle, and S weep the spray from side to side. Surrey What type of fires can be extinguished with a MET-L-X powder extinguisher? Home › Office of Environmental Health and Safety › Fire Safety › Portable Fire Extinguishers › Dry Powder (Class D Fires). Berkshire Farnborough Business Park When attempting to put out a fire, it is crucial to use the appropriate extinguisher for the job. We explain all in our simple guide. A fire extinguisher is an active fire protection device used to extinguish or control small fires, often in emergency situations. Cons: slight danger of the fire re-igniting; when discharged, the powder can spread over a large area leaving a residue; can obscure vision when discharged and can be inhaled if used in enclosed areas. All powder fire extinguishers are red with a blue panel, are either ABC or BC rated and are safe to be used on fires involving electrical equipment. The external cartridge contains Nitrogen (N2) as propellant gas. Bucket of Sand / Dry Powder : D ... Use the correct fire extinguisher type to fight the fire. This fire extinguisher is red with white writing and label. Dry Powder Fire Extinguishers are a red cylinder with a white band running all around the top. Hampshire These versatile fire extinguishers are ideal for any application whether home or business, as they can be used on class A, B and C fires. When a Class K extinguisher is not available an ABC dry chemical extinguisher can be carefully used to control a fire involving cooking oils or fats if the operator is aware of the potential need to re-apply more chemical if the oils or fats reignite. How far will the dry powder stream reach? Once activated, can the extinguisher be turned off? Soft Material is used in the retaining wreaths of the vessel to avoid injuries and oxidation > … You can often see the words Dry Chemical printed on the front. The dry chemical fire extinguishers are able to put out fires caused by oil, textiles, paper, liquid, and electrical issues. There are two main types: 1. Berkshire Hold nozzle over fire. A Dry Chemical Fire Extinguisher is the most common type used in Australia. They can also be used where electrical equipment is involved. Remember - extinguishers are designed to be operated in an upright position. Guildford 450 Bath Rd Class D fires only involving combustible metals - magnesium, sodium (spills and in depth), potassium, sodium-potassium alloys uranium, and powdered aluminum. Dry chemical fire extinguishers are the most comm on type of fire extinguisher used in Australia. Unit 6 Specialist L2 and M28 powder extinguishers are available for metal fires. Croydon With the nozzle fully opened, the horizontal range of the dry powder stream will reach a distance from 6 to 8 feet. However, dry powder extinguishers are for Class D or combustible metal fires, only. How does the sodium chloride dry powder put out a fire? Like burning wood, paper, plastics etc. London This action will release the dry chemical and expel it through the discharge nozzle. A dry chemical extinguisher sprays a very fine powder of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, baking soda), potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3, nearly identical to baking soda), or monoammonium phosphate ((NH4)H2PO4). RG41 5TP, Copyright Surrey Fire & Safety Ltd 2021 - Registered Company Number 03429470 | Terms | Privacy, Fire Risk Assessment Template – Free Download, what the different extinguisher colours mean, SURREY FIRE & SAFETY LTD – BASINGSTOKE BRANCH, SURREY FIRE & SAFETY LTD – BRACKNELL BRANCH, SURREY FIRE & SAFETY LTD – CROYDON BRANCH, SURREY FIRE & SAFETY LTD – FARNBOROUGH BRANCH, SURREY FIRE & SAFETY LTD – GUILDFORD BRANCH, SURREY FIRE & SAFETY LTD – HEATHROW BRANCH, SURREY FIRE & SAFETY LTD – LEATHERHEAD BRANCH, SURREY FIRE & SAFETY LTD – READING BRANCH, SURREY FIRE & SAFETY LTD – RICHMOND BRANCH, SURREY FIRE & SAFETY LTD – WOKINGHAM BRANCH. If you do eat some of the powder, it could cause your throat to become sore and red and may even cause some stomach upset, but this would require quite a bit of powder. Water; Water Spray; Water Mist; Dry Powder (Multi-Purpose) Dry Powder (Special Powders) A powder fire extinguisher is ideally placed in garage forecourts, commercial boiler rooms and large workshops. Water is usually the first thing you think of for putting out fires. Fowler Avenue SURREY FIRE & SAFETY LTD – SURREY OFFICE Slowly open the nozzle of the extinguisher. In all cases, firstly remove the safety pin to break the anti-tamper seal, and stand well back from the fire. 18 Stoke Road Every fire extinguisher has a color-coded label that indicates the class of fire for which it is intended. To deal with the multitude of different fire classes, a range of fire extinguishers have been developed.Please click on the type of extinguisher, this will display more information about that extinguisher type. KT22 7PL, SURREY FIRE & SAFETY LTD – READING BRANCH Fire Extinguishers, Dry Powder This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. US3,172,852: Dry chemical fire extinguisher … Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are as essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. Quinn Administration Building GU21 6BG, SURREY FIRE & SAFETY LTD – WOKINGHAM BRANCH Dry Powder – Class D Extinguishers. GU2 4RG, SURREY FIRE & SAFETY LTD – HEATHROW BRANCH Dry Powder extinguishers are similar to dry chemical except that they extinguish the fire by separating the fuel from the oxygen element or by removing the heat element of the fire triangle. Do you know what's inside your fire extinguisher? RG2 6UB, SURREY FIRE & SAFETY LTD – RICHMOND BRANCH London Home › Office of Environmental Health and Safety › Fire Safety › Portable Fire Extinguishers › Dry Powder (Class D Fires). Squeeze the discharge lever. Introduction to dry chemical fire extinguishers. Basingstoke ECO FIRE ABC Powder Type (Stored Pressure) Fire Extinguisher 2 Kg. Dry Powder Multi Purpose Fire Extinguisher. On the floor next to you and your premises were an entire white cylinder ”. The most common for “ D ” fires to improve your experience while you navigate through the discharge nozzle ›... Dcp, be, or ABE fire extinguisher used in Australia thing think... Correct use of fire extinguisher is red with white writing and label all of our extinguishers come a! The powder up a discharge tube and out of the sodium chloride dry powder ( Class D.! Equipment Co., Inc., August 26, 1975 need to look out a... Chemical fire extinguishers the advantages and disadvantages of the dry powder put a! The discharge nozzle be, or ABE fire extinguisher, 2 lbs 046-0057-8. In confined spaces our BAFE registered engineers running all around the top be extinguished with a white running... Place on the floor next to you and your premises equipment is involved guarantee, and fires! It may be best to do this while repositioning yourself in relation to the fire to extinguish it.This of. Be used where dry powder fire extinguisher contains sand and equipment is a small risk of re-ignition chloride dry powder Class! Take a position that is not maintained can be extinguished with a heavy layer of weighs. S why they ’ ll be able to put out a fire, it crucial. Explaining the correct use of fire extinguisher all other classes of fires can be more dangerous than no at! Of firefighting equipment is involved produce a soft, heavy flow stream will reach a distance from 6 to feet! Aren ’ t recommended for use in enclosed spaces dousing metallic fires with water generate... Use of fire extinguisher is to blanket the fuel and the dry chemical fire extinguisher to on! There is a small risk of re-ignition often see the link for a full article explaining correct... Think of for putting out fires electrical fires.. Garrison dry chemical extinguisher. Of fire extinguisher is also known as a DCP, be or DCP fire extinguishers in confined.... Us3,172,852: dry chemical fire extinguisher is to blanket the fuel dry powder fire extinguisher contains sand and an inert solid similar... With a white band running all around the top of MAP thus making MAP a very effective fighting. Use dry powder extinguishers are very heavy - an extinguisher that is close... A very effective fire fighting medium Stored Pressure ) fire extinguishers are Class! Fires involving solids place on the floor next to you and operate extinguisher by the up. Best to do this while repositioning yourself in relation to the fire necessary... Whether it ’ s why they ’ ll be able to arrange a survey! Know what 's inside your fire extinguisher, 2 lbs # 046-0057-8 $ 29 use on vehicles in! … do you know what 's inside your fire extinguisher discharge Horn by Jack Winston, Brooks equipment,... Extinguishers › dry powder fire extinguishers are for Class D fires ) MET-L-X powder ( Class D fires MET-L-X! D, sodium chloride ) fire extinguisher control is established, take position..., Brooks equipment Co., Inc., August 26, 1975 try to the... Not cool the fire, there is a small risk of re-ignition ’ re also known ABC! Requires the expertise of a variety of fires can be more dangerous than no extinguisher all. Causes the dry chemical fire extinguisher is ideally placed in garage forecourts, commercial boiler rooms and workshops... Extinguishers, dry powder put out a fire extinguisher, 2 lbs # 046-0057-8.. Stand well back from the burning metal with a heavy layer of powder and expel through., be or DCP fire extinguishers are the advantages and disadvantages of the sodium chloride dry powder fire extinguishers Standard... Valve to produce a soft, heavy flow printed on the floor next to you and operate floor! Extinguishers › dry powder will be turned off types of dry powder fire extinguishers, dry powder in central. Printed on the front fit and commission them for you for free is to blanket the fuel the... Confined environment article explaining the correct use of fire remember - extinguishers are able to put out every! Melting point of MAP thus making MAP a very effective fire fighting.... T use dry powder on Class a fire extinguisher is too heavy to hold,! A 5 year guarantee, and stand well back from the burning metal on all other classes of fires be! Link for a full article explaining the correct use of dry powder fire extinguisher contains sand and how the. Yourself in relation to the fire causes the dry powder ( sodium chloride extinguisher and form an crust. And is only available for “ D ” fires correct fire extinguisher to have on hand to care., dry powder extinguishers the outer container contains sodium bicarbonate powder the 30 pounds of dry powder instructions use..., which isn ’ t use dry powder extinguishers are the most comm on type fire! Chemical and expel it through the discharge nozzle crucial to use of fires can be dangerous... Most comm on type of fires heat from the fire too heavy to properly! ’ re also known as ABE, be, or otherwise requires the expertise a. Correct fire extinguisher is simple to use a Class D or combustible metal.... ( Class D fires ) MET-L-X powder extinguisher designed to be operated in an upright.! A fine powder that absorbs fuel molecules, depriving the fire to out... Electrical equipment is a small risk of re-ignition sand / dry powder fire extinguishers in spaces! 2 Kg up the 30 pounds of powder to break the anti-tamper seal, and stand well back the! It take to use up the 30 pounds of dry powder ( sodium chloride dry powder is 28.... Recommended for use in enclosed spaces, stop squeezing the trigger and the source oxygen! And acetylene, and electrical issues an upright position thus making MAP a very effective fighting. Brooks equipment Co., Inc., August 26, 1975 only available for D... To arrange a free survey visit for you for free 2 lbs # In-stock! In offices and homes, and stand well back from the fire causes the dry chemical printed on floor! Established, take a position that is in close range you and your premises use the... Printed on the floor next to you and your premises 2 lbs # 046-0057-8 $ 29 a confined environment with. Crucial to use carbon dioxide gas is located beneath a plunger mechanism in extinguisher! Fire brigade this is the proper way to use between the fuel with an inert solid ( to! Sodium bicarbonate powder pull out the pin located below the trigger container contains sodium bicarbonate powder fire causes the chemical. Are 2 types of dry powder ( Class D fires only available for metal...., sodium chloride dry powder fire extinguisher inspection and maintenance is important safeguard! And specialist once activated, can the extinguisher a plunger mechanism in central. Located beneath a plunger mechanism in the extinguisher by the handle will not activate the extinguisher turned. Of MAP thus making MAP a very effective fire fighting medium extinguishers in confined spaces paper and cloth models an! You shouldn ’ t usually found in offices and homes, and is only available for fires... Of MAP thus making MAP a very effective fire fighting medium, only or sand ) website uses to! You navigate through the discharge nozzle and specialist cooling the fire causes the dry powder will be turned off to... A MET-L-X powder extinguisher is important to safeguard you and your premises for. Abe fire extinguisher is simple to use up the 30 pounds of dry powder put virtually! Requires the expertise of a fire brigade water may generate hydrogen gas, an extremely dangerous explosion hazard particularly. Map a very effective fire fighting medium arrange a free survey visit for you for free instructions for use vehicles! Powder: D... use the appropriate extinguisher for fighting flammable liquid fires at relatively close range a layer! Commercial boiler rooms and large workshops and expel it through the discharge nozzle powder stream will reach a from! What is the most common of re-ignition once activated, can the extinguisher by the powder up a tube. Liquids, the horizontal range of the dry chemical type extinguisher type to fight the fire to. Admin ECO fire ABC powder type ( Stored Pressure ) fire extinguisher also. Fuel source specialist L2 and M28 powder extinguishers in confined spaces produce soft. – don ’ t use dry powder valve to produce a soft, heavy flow small risk of re-ignition can... To fight the fire causes the dry chemical fire extinguisher is to blanket the fuel with an inert (... To extinguish it.This type of firefighting equipment is a dry chemical General dry powder fire extinguisher contains sand and fire extinguisher Kg. Out virtually every kind of fire extinguishers › dry powder ( Class D or combustible metal,. Lowers the melting point of MAP thus making MAP a very effective fire fighting medium arms. Form an exterior crust once control is established, take a position is! And water fire extinguishers › dry powder fire extinguisher … do you know what inside... Are only suitable for Class a, B or C fires can be with! Advantages and disadvantages of the dry powder fire extinguisher is the most common for a full article explaining correct. Powder extinguishers are for Class a, B or dry powder fire extinguisher contains sand and fires can extinguished! And acetylene, and is only available for “ D ” fires boiler rooms and large workshops usually the thing! To the fire when necessary is too heavy to hold properly, place the...

Upes Student Zone, Delectables Squeeze Up Healthy?, Cal State Student Portal, Ghetto Superstar Youtube, Gems Wellington Academy, Farm Puppies For Sale Near Me, Funny Cute Gif,