According to Benny Simpson’s book A Field Guide to Texas Trees, it is difficult to tell where the plant is native because it has been planted in so many areas. It typically has a short trunk and a rounded or irregular crown. [3] They are generally set up green because the dried wood is too hard to reliably accept the staples used to attach the fencing to the posts. The root system seems shallow and not durable. The bark of the trunk has been used for tanning leather. Male tree in flower in the spring.NATURAL HABITAT AND PREFERRED SITE:  Needs full sun. [31], The Osage orange is commonly used as a tree row windbreak in prairie states, which gives it one of its colloquial names, "hedge apple". Despite the name "Osage orange", it is not related to the orange. It is loaded with juice that is milky and acid. Whilst nitrates aren’t too toxic, they can be converted to nitrites by plants or by the horse. Arnoldia 61, no. Typically, horses would need to consume a cup of seeds to feel toxic effects (that's a lot of apples!). Bois d’ arc is well known for growing in fence rows and has been widely used as a windbreak plant because of its tendency to form thickets. [6], Maclura pomifera has been known by a variety of common names in addition to Osage orange, including hedge apple, horse apple, the French bois d'arc and English transliterations: bodark and bodock, also translated as "bow-wood"; monkey ball, monkey brains, yellow-wood and mock orange. Apple. Kansas Curiosities: Quirky Characters, Roadside Oddities & Other Offbeat Stuff. [6] The seeds are oblong. 2 (2001): 14-21. Apples are delicious, nutritious treats for horses, and people, but contain a lot of sugars. It favors stream bottoms and low areas and can become a weedy invader of disturbed land. Very often a Hedge apple is incorrectly referred to as a Hedge Ball, Horse Apple, Green Brains, Monkey Balls or Mock Orange. Sounds like a business opportunity for those with lots of bois 'arc trees. In this case, an apple a day will not keep the vet away. Horses and other livestock will sometimes eat the fruit. “Recently people have been throwing out the apples from their trees on the range for the wild horses,” horse volunteer Mary Cioffi said. Staminate flowers are pale green, small, and arranged in racemes borne on long, slender, drooping peduncles developed from the axils of crowded leaves on the spur-like branchlets of the previous year. [11][3][12][13] By providing a barrier that was "horse-high, bull-strong, and pig-tight", Osage orange hedges provided the "crucial stop-gap measure for westward expansion until the introduction of barbed wire a few decades later". "Anachronistic fruits and the ghosts who haunt them." The hedge apple takes many different names, including the Osage orange, the Maclura pomifera and bodark. [17][22] An analysis of phylogeny based on chloroplast and nuclear genes indicates that a clade containing Maclura pomifera probably diverged from other Maclura clades during the Oligocene, coincident with divergence of mammoth/mastodon and sloth clades, suggesting these mammals may have been seed dispersers of Maclura pomifera. Ovaries are superior, ovate, compressed, green, and crowned by a long slender style covered with white stigmatic hairs. The fruit is the large horse apple that looks a little bit like a lime green brain 4 to 6 inches in diameter. "[3], The Comanche also used this wood for their bows. I have received several reports that bois 'd arc fruit (horse apples) do in fact repel roaches and other pests. [23] An equine species that became extinct at the same time also has been suggested as the plant's original dispersal agent because modern horses and other livestock will sometimes eat the fruit. [3][35] Although its wood is commonly knotty and twisted, straight-grained Osage orange timber makes good bows, as used by Native Americans. Some people are allergic to the milky sap from the stems, leaves and fruit and develop dermatitis. [36], When dried, the wood has the highest heating value of any commonly available North American wood, and burns long and hot. Recumbence (lying down) 10. Crossbills are said to peck the seeds out. Ataxia (loss of coordination) 9. I was once told that the milk in the horse apples are poisonous to roaches, spread them around your house & no more roach problems. This way, your horse is getting a s… The fruit is also toxic until it has ripened. Climbing Nightshade (European Bittersweet, Deadly Nightshade, Violet Bloom, Blue Nightshade, Soda Apple, Poisonous Nightshade, Felonwort, Devil's Apple, Scarlet Berry, Woody Nightshade, Blue Blindweed) ... Plants Non-Toxic to Horses. Anemia 3. Problems include borers, shallow root system, wind damage, trees falling over in wet soils and other related immune system problems.PROPAGATION:  Very easy, can be grown from stem cuttings cut from branches or rather large limbs. Bleeding from the nose 8. [5] Due to its latex secretions and woody pulp, the fruit is typically not eaten by humans and rarely by foraging animals, giving it distinction as an anachronistic "ghost of evolution". Jaundice 5. It's interesting that squirrels certainly aren't repelled by them. [9][33] In 2001, its wood was used in the construction in Chestertown, Maryland of the schooner Sultana, a replica of HMS Sultana. Bois d'Arc Maclura pomifera (ma-CLUE-ra pon-IF-er-ah) ​Moraceae (Mulberry Family)OTHER COMMON NAMES: OSAGE-ORANGE,  HORSE APPLE, BOW WOOD, HEDGE APPLE, BODARK, YELLOW WOOD, NARANJO CHINO. In 1810, Bradbury relates that he found two Maclura pomifera trees growing in the garden of Pierre Chouteau, one of the first settlers of Saint Louis, apparently the same person. [24], The fruit is not poisonous to humans or livestock, but is not preferred by them,[25] because it is mostly inedible due to a large size (about the diameter of a softball) and hard, dry texture. If your horse has an active hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HYPP), potassium is leaked into its blood stream from the muscles continuously. Apples are a popular and healthy fruit, and a big part of American culture and history. Branchlets are at first bright green and pubescent; during their first winter they become light brown tinged with orange, and later they become a paler orange brown. The mature multiple fruit's size and general appearance resembles a large, yellow-green orange, 10 to 13 centimetres (4–5 in) in diameter, with a roughened and tuberculated surface. 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